# Project B5

### 2021

#### Interacting Chern Insulator in Infinite Spatial Dimensions

*David Krüger and Michael Potthoff*

We study a generic model of a Chern insulator supplemented by a Hubbard interaction in arbitrary even dimension *D* and demonstrate that the model remains well defined and nontrivial in the *D* → ∞ limit. Dynamical mean-field theory is applicable and predicts a phase diagram with a *continuum* of topologically different phases separating a correlated Mott insulator from the trivial band insulator. We discuss various features, such as the elusive distinction between insulating and semimetal states, which are unconventional already in the noninteracting case. Topological phases are characterized by a nonquantized Chern *density* replacing the Chern number as *D* → ∞.

#### Non-Hamiltonian dynamics of indirectly coupled classical impurity spins

*Simon Michel and Michael Potthoff*

We discuss the emergence of an effective low-energy theory for the real-time dynamics of two classical impurity spins within the framework of a prototypical and purely classical model of indirect magnetic exchange: two classical impurity spins are embedded in a host system which consists of a finite number of classical spins localized on the sites of a lattice and interacting via a nearest-neighbor Heisenberg exchange. An effective low-energy theory for the slow impurity-spin dynamics is derived for the regime, where the local exchange coupling between impurity and host spins is weak. To this end, we apply the recently developed adiabatic spin dynamics (ASD) theory. Besides the Hamiltonian-like classical spin torques, the ASD additionally accounts for a novel topological spin torque that originates as a holonomy effect in the close-to-adiabatic-dynamics regime. It is shown that the effective low-energy precession dynamics cannot be derived from an effective Hamilton function and is characterized by a nonvanishing precession frequency even if the initial state deviates only slightly from a ground state. The effective theory is compared to the fully numerical solution of the equations of motion for the whole system of impurity and host spins to identify the parameter regime where the adiabatic effective theory applies. Effective theories beyond the adiabatic approximation must necessarily include dynamic host degrees of freedom and go beyond the idea of a simple indirect magnetic exchange. We discuss an example of a generalized constrained spin dynamics which does improve the description but also fails for certain geometrical setups.

#### Long-time relaxation dynamics of a spin coupled to a Chern insulator

*Michael Elbracht and Michael Potthoff*

The relaxation of a classical spin, exchange coupled to the local magnetic moment at an edge site of the one-dimensional spinful Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, is studied numerically by solving the full set of equations of motion. A Lindblad coupling of a few sites at the opposite edge to an absorbing bath ensures that convergence with respect to the system size is achieved with only a moderate number of core sites. This allows us to numerically exactly study the long-time limit and to determine the parameter regimes where spin relaxation takes place. Corresponding dynamical phase diagrams for the topologically trivial and the nontrivial cases are constructed. The dynamical phase boundaries, the role of the topological edge state, and its internal Zeeman splitting for the spin-relaxation process, as well as incomplete spin relaxation on long time scales can be explained within the framework of a renormalized linear-response approach when explicitly taking retardation effects and nonequilibrium spin-exchange processes into account.

### 2020

#### Accessing long timescales in the relaxation dynamics of spins coupled to a conduction-electron system using absorbing boundary conditions

*Michael Elbracht and Michael Potthoff*

The relaxation time of a classical spin interacting with a large conduction-electron system is computed for a weak magnetic field, which initially drives the spin out of equilibrium. We trace the spin and the conduction-electron dynamics on a timescale which exceeds the characteristic electronic scale that is set by the inverse nearest-neighbor hopping by more than five orders of magnitude. This is achieved with a construction of absorbing boundary conditions, which employs a generalized Lindblad master-equation approach to couple the edge sites of the conduction-electron tight-binding model to an external bath. The failure of the standard Lindblad approach to absorbing boundaries is traced back to artificial excitations initially generated due to the coupling to the bath. This can be cured by introducing Lindblad parameter matrices and by fixing those matrices to perfectly suppress initial-state artifacts as well as reflections of physical excitations propagating to the system boundaries. Numerical results are presented and discussed for generic one-dimensional models of the electronic structure.

#### Topological spin torque emerging in classical-spin systems with different time scales

*M. Elbracht, S. Michel, M. Potthoff*

In classical spin systems with two largely different inherent timescales, the configuration of the fast spins almost instantaneously follows the slow-spin dynamics. We develop the emergent effective theory for the slow-spin degrees of freedom and demonstrate that this generally includes a topological spin torque. This torque gives rise to anomalous real-time dynamics. It derives from the holonomic constraints defining the fast-spin configuration space and is given in terms of a topological charge density which becomes a quantized homotopy invariant when integrated.

### 2019

#### Magnetic Doublon Bound States in the Kondo Lattice Model

R. Rausch, M. Potthoff, N. Kawakami

We present a novel pairing mechanism for electrons, mediated by magnons. These paired bound states are termed “magnetic doublons.” Applying numerically exact techniques (full diagonalization and the density-matrix renormalization group, DMRG) to the Kondo lattice model at strong exchange coupling * J* for different fillings and magnetic configurations, we demonstrate that magnetic doublon excitations exist as composite objects with very weak dispersion. They are highly stable, support a novel “inverse” colossal magnetoresistance and potentially other effects.

#### Pump-probe Auger-electron spectroscopy of Mott insulators

*R. Rausch, M. Potthoff*

In high-resolution core-valence-valence (CVV) Auger electron spectroscopy from the surface of a solid at thermal equilibrium, the main correlation satellite, visible in the case of strong valence-electron correlations, corresponds to a bound state of the two holes in the final state of the CVV Auger process. We discuss the physical significance of this satellite in nonequilibrium pump-probe Auger spectroscopy by numerical analysis of a single-band Hubbard-type model system, including core states and a continuum of high-energy scattering states. It turns out that the spectrum of the photo-doped system, due to the increased double occupancy, shares features with the equilibrium spectrum at higher fillings. The pumping of doublons can be watched when working with overlapping pulses at short ** Δt**. For larger pump-probe delays

**and on the typical femtosecond timescale for electronic relaxation processes, spectra are hardly**

*Δt***dependent, reflecting the high stability of bound two-hole states for strong Hubbard**

*Δt***. We argue that taking into account the spatial expansion of single-particle orbitals when these are doubly occupied, as described by the dynamical Hubbard model, produces an oscillation of the barycenter of the satellite as a function of**

*U***. Pump-probe Auger-electron spectroscopy is thus highly sensitive to dynamical screening of the Coulomb interaction.**

*Δt*#### Phase diagram of the Kondo model on the zigzag ladder

*M. Peschke, L.-M. Woelk, M. Potthoff*

The effect of next-nearest-neighbor hopping * t_{2}* on the ground-state phase diagram of the one-dimensional Kondo lattice is studied with density-matrix renormalization-group techniques and by comparing with the phase diagram of the classical-spin variant of the same model. For a finite

*, i.e., for a zigzag-ladder geometry, indirect antiferromagnetic interactions between the localized spins are geometrically frustrated. We demonstrate that*

**t**_{2}**at the same time triggers several magnetic phases which are absent in the model with nearest-neighbor hopping only. For strong**

*t*_{2}**, we find a transition from antiferromagnetic to incommensurate magnetic short-range order, which can be understood entirely in the classical-spin picture. For weaker**

*J***, a spin-dimerized phase emerges, which spontaneously breaks the discrete translation symmetry. The phase is not accessible to perturbative means but is explained, on a qualitative level, by the classical-spin model as well. Spin dimerization alleviates magnetic frustration and is interpreted as a key to understand the emergence of quasi-long-range spiral magnetic order, which is found at weaker couplings. The phase diagram at weak**

*J***, with gapless quasi-long-range order on top of the twofold degenerate spin-dimerized ground state, competing with a nondegenerate phase with gapped spin (and charge) excitations, is unconventional and eludes an effective low-energy spin-only theory.**

*J*### 2018

#### Non-collinear spin states in bottom-up fabricated atomic chains

*M. Steinbrecher, R. Rausch, Khai Ton That, J. Hermenau, A.A. Khajetoorians, M. Potthoff, R. Wiesendanger, J. Wiebe*

Non-collinear spin states with unique rotational sense, such as chiral spin-spirals, are recently heavily investigated because of advantages for future applications in spintronics and information technology and as potential hosts for Majorana Fermions when coupled to a superconductor. Tuning the properties of such spin states, e.g., the rotational period and sense, is a highly desirable yet difficult task. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the bottom-up assembly of a spin-spiral derived from a chain of iron atoms on a platinum substrate using the magnetic tip of a scanning tunneling microscope as a tool. We show that the spin-spiral is induced by the interplay of the Heisenberg and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya components of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction between the iron atoms. The relative strengths and signs of these two components can be adjusted by the interatomic iron distance, which enables tailoring of the rotational period and sense of the spin-spiral.

Nat. Commun. 9, 2853 (2018)

### 2017

#### Anomalous spin precession under a geometrical torque

*C. Stahl, M. Potthoff*

Precession and relaxation predominantly characterize the real-time dynamics of a spin driven by a magnetic field and coupled to a large Fermi sea of conduction electrons. We demonstrate an anomalous precession with frequency higher than the Larmor frequency or with inverted orientation in the limit where the electronic motion adiabatically follows the spin dynamics. For a classical spin, the effect is traced back to a geometrical torque resulting from a finite spin Berry curvature.

Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 227203 (2017)

#### Enforcing conservation laws in nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory

*C. Gramsch, M. Potthoff*

Using the recently introduced time-local formulation of the nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory (CPT), we construct a generalization of the approach such that macroscopic conservation laws are respected. This is achieved by exploiting the freedom for the choice of the starting point of the all-order perturbation theory in the intercluster hopping. The proposed conserving CPT is a self-consistent propagation scheme which respects the conservation of energy, particle number, and spin, which treats short-range correlations exactly up to the linear scale of the cluster, and which represents a mean-field-like approach on length scales beyond the cluster size. Using Green's functions, conservation laws are formulated as local constraints on the local spin-dependent particle and the doublon density. We consider them as conditional equations to self-consistently fix the time-dependent intracluster one-particle parameters. Thanks to the intrinsic causality of the CPT, this can be set up as a step-by-step time propagation scheme with a computational effort scaling linearly with the maximum propagation time and exponentially in the cluster size. As a proof of concept, we consider the dynamics of the two-dimensional, particle-hole-symmetric Hubbard model following a weak interaction quench by simply employing two-site clusters only. Conservation laws are satisfied by construction. We demonstrate that enforcing them has strong impact on the dynamics. While the doublon density is strongly oscillating within plain CPT, a monotonic relaxation is observed within the conserving CPT.

Phys. Rev. B 95, 205130 (2017)

#### Filling-dependent doublon dynamics in the one-dimensional Hubbard model

*R. Rausch and M. Potthoff*

The fate of a local two-hole doublon excitation in the one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model is systematically studied for strong Hubbard interaction U in the entire filling range using the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and the Bethe ansatz. For strong U, two holes at the same site form a compound object whose decay is impeded by the lack of phase space. Still, a partial decay is possible on an extremely short time scale where phase-space arguments do not yet apply. We argue that the initial decay and the resulting intermediate state are relevant for experiments performed with ultracold atoms loaded into an optical lattice as well as for (time-resolved) CVV Auger-electron spectroscopy. The detailed discussion comprises the mixed ballistic-diffusive real-time propagation of the doublon through the lattice, its partial decay on the short time scale as a function of filling and interaction strength, as well as the analysis of the decay products, which are metastable on the intermediate time scale that is numerically accessible and which show up in the two-hole excitation (Auger) spectrum. The ambivalent role of singly occupied sites is key to understanding the doublon physics; for high fillings, ground-state configurations with single occupancies are recognized to strongly relax the kinematic constraints and to open up decay channels. For fillings close to half-filling, however, their presence actually blocks the doublon decay. Finally, the analysis of the continua in the two-hole spectrum excludes a picture where the doublon decays into unbound electron holes for generic fillings, different from the limiting case of the completely filled band. We demonstrate that the decay products as well as the doublon propagation should rather be understood in terms of Bethe ansatz eigenstates.

Phys. Rev. B 95, 045152 (2017)

### 2016

#### Nonequilibrium self-energy functional approach to the dynamical Mott transition

*F. Hofmann, M. Eckstein, M. Potthoff*

The real-time dynamics of the Fermi-Hubbard model, driven out of equilibrium by quenching or ramping the interaction parameter, is studied within the framework of the nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory. A dynamical impurity approximation with a single auxiliary bath site is considered as a reference system and the time-dependent hybridization is optimized as prescribed by the variational principle. The dynamical two-site approximation turns out to be useful to study the real-time dynamics on short and intermediate time scales. Depending on the strength of the interaction in the final state, two qualitatively different response regimes are found. For both weak and strong couplings, qualitative agreement with previous results of nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory is found. The two regimes are sharply separated by a critical point at which the low-energy bath degree of freedom decouples in the course of time. We trace the dependence of the critical interaction of the dynamical Mott transition on the duration of the interaction ramp from sudden quenches to adiabatic dynamics, and therewith link the dynamical to the equilibrium Mott transition.

#### Nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory

*F. Hofmann, M. Eckstein, E. Arrigoni, M. Potthoff*

The self-energy functional theory (SFT) is generalized to describe the real-time dynamics of correlated lattice-fermion models far from thermal equilibrium. This is achieved by starting from a reformulation of the original equilibrium theory in terms of double-time Green's functions on the Keldysh-Matsubara contour. With the help of a generalized Luttinger-Ward functional, we construct a functional Ω̂[Σ] which is stationary at the physical (nonequilibrium) self-energy Σ and which yields the grand potential of the initial thermal state Ω at the physical point. Nonperturbative approximations can be defined by specifying a reference system that serves to generate trial self-energies. These self-energies are varied by varying the reference system's one-particle parameters on the Keldysh-Matsubara contour. In the case of thermal equilibrium, this approach reduces to the conventional SFT. Contrary to the equilibrium theory, however, “unphysical” variations, i.e., variations that are different on the upper and the lower branches of the Keldysh contour, must be considered to fix the time dependence of the optimal physical parameters via the variational principle. Functional derivatives in the nonequilibrium SFT Euler equation are carried out analytically to derive conditional equations for the variational parameters that are accessible to a numerical evaluation via a time-propagation scheme. Approximations constructed by means of the nonequilibrium SFT are shown to be inherently causal, internally consistent, and to respect macroscopic conservation laws resulting from gauge symmetries of the Hamiltonian. This comprises the nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory but also dynamical-impurity and variational-cluster approximations that are specified by reference systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom. In this way, nonperturbative and consistent approximations can be set up, the numerical evaluation of which is accessible to an exact-diagonalization approach.

#### Inertia effects in the real-time dynamics of a quantum spin coupled to a Fermi sea

*M. Sayad, R. Rausch, M. Potthoff*

Spin dynamics in the Kondo impurity model, initiated by suddenly switching the direction of a local magnetic field, is studied by means of the time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group. Quantum effects are identified by systematic computations for different spin quantum numbers S and by comparing with tight-binding spin-dynamics theory for the classical-spin Kondo model. We demonstrate that, besides the conventional precessional motion and relaxation, the quantum-spin dynamics shows nutation, similar to a spinning top. Opposed to semiclassical theory, however, the nutation is efficiently damped on an extremely short time scale. The effect is explained in the large-S limit as quantum dephasing of the eigenmodes in an emergent two-spin model that is weakly entangled with the bulk of the system. We argue that, apart from the Kondo effect, the damping of nutational motion is essentially the only characteristics of the quantum nature of the spin. Qualitative agreement between quantum and semiclassical spin dynamics is found down to S=1/2.

Europhys. Lett. 116, 17001 (2016)

#### One-step theory of two-photon photoemission

*J. Braun, R. Rausch, M. Potthoff, H. Ebert*

A theoretical frame for two-photon photoemission is derived from the general theory of pump-probe photoemission, assuming that not only the probe but also the pump pulse is sufficiently weak. This allows us to use a perturbative approach to compute the lesser Green function within the Keldysh formalism. Two-photon photoemission spectroscopy is a widely used analytical tool to study nonequilibrium phenomena in solid materials. Our theoretical approach aims at a material-specific, realistic, and quantitative description of the time-dependent spectrum based on a picture of effectively independent electrons as described by the local-density approximation in band-structure theory. To this end we follow Pendry's one-step theory of the photoemission process as close as possible and heavily make use of concepts of relativistic multiple-scattering theory, such as the representation of the final state by a time-reversed low-energy electron diffraction state. The formalism allows for a quantitative calculation of the time-dependent photocurrent for moderately correlated systems like simple metals or more complex compounds like topological insulators. An application to the Ag(100) surface is discussed in detail.

Phys. Rev. B 94, 125128 (2016)

#### Relaxation of a classical spin coupled to a strongly correlated electron system

*M. Sayad, R. Rausch, M. Potthoff*

A classical spin which is antiferromagnetically coupled to a system of strongly correlated conduction electrons is shown to exhibit unconventional real-time dynamics which cannot be described by Gilbert damping. Depending on the strength of the local Coulomb interaction U, the two main electronic dissipation channels, namely transport of excitations via correlated hopping and via excitations of correlation-induced magnetic moments, become active on largely different time scales. We demonstrate that correlations can lead to a strongly suppressed relaxation which so far has been observed in purely electronic systems only and which is governed here by proximity to the divergent magnetic time scale in the infinite-U limit.

Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 127201 (2016)

#### Time-dependent Mott transition in the periodic Anderson model with nonlocal hybridization

*F. Hofmann, M. Potthoff*

The time-dependent Mott transition in a periodic Anderson model with off-site, nearest-neighbor hybridization is studied within the framework of nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory. Using the two-site dynamical-impurity approximation, we compute the real-time dynamics of the optimal variational parameter and of different observables initiated by sudden quenches of the Hubbard-U and identify the critical interaction. The time-dependent transition is orbital selective, i.e., in the final state, reached in the long-time limit after the quench to the critical interaction, the Mott gap opens in the spectral function of the localized orbitals only. We discuss the dependence of the critical interaction and of the final-state effective temperature on the hybridization strength and point out the various similarities between the nonequilibrium and the equilibrium Mott transition. It is shown that these can also be smoothly connected to each other by increasing the duration of a U-ramp from a sudden quench to a quasi-static process. The physics found for the model with off-site hybridization is compared with the dynamical Mott transition in the single-orbital Hubbard model and with the dynamical crossover found for the real-time dynamics of the conventional Anderson lattice with on-site hybridization.

Eur. Phys. J. B 89, 178 (2016)

#### Multiplons in the two-hole excitation spectra of the one-dimensional Hubbard model

*R. Rausch, M. Potthoff*

Using the density-matrix renormalization group in combination with the Chebyshev polynomial expansion technique, we study the two-hole excitation spectrum of the one-dimensional Hubbard model in the entire filling range from the completely occupied band (n = 2) down to half-filling (n = 1). For strong interactions, the spectra reveal multiplon physics, i.e., relevant final states are characterized by two (doublon), three (triplon), four (quadruplon) and more holes, potentially forming stable compound objects or resonances with finite lifetime. These give rise to several satellites in the spectra with largely different spectral weights as well as to different two-hole, doublon–hole, two-doublon etc continua. The complex multiplon phenomenology is analyzed by interpreting not only local and k-resolved two-hole spectra but also three- and four-hole spectra for the Hubbard model and by referring to effective low-energy models. In addition, a filter-operator technique is presented and applied which allows to extract specific information on the final states at a given excitation energy. While multiplons composed of an odd number of holes do neither form stable compounds nor well-defined resonances unless a nearest-neighbor density interaction V is added to the Hamiltonian, the doublon and the quadruplon are well-defined resonances. The k-resolved four-hole spectrum at n = 2 represents an interesting special case where a completely stable quadruplon turns into a resonance by merging with the doublon–doublon continuum at a critical wave vector. For all fillings with $n\gt 1$, the doublon lifetime is strongly k-dependent and is even infinite at the Brillouin zone edges as demonstrated by k-resolved two-hole spectra. This can be traced back to the 'hidden' charge-SU(2) symmetry of the model which is explicitly broken off half-filling and gives rise to a massive collective excitation, even for arbitrary higher-dimensional but bipartite lattices.

New J. Phys. 18, 023033 (2016)

#### Non-equilibrium variational-cluster approach to real-time dynamics in the Fermi-Hubbard model

*Felix Hofmann, Martin Eckstein, Michael Potthoff*

The non-equilibrium variational-cluster approach is applied to study the real-time dynamics of the double occupancy in the one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model after different fast changes of hopping parameters. A simple reference system, consisting of isolated Hubbard dimers, is used to discuss different aspects of the numerical implementation of the approach in the general framework of non-equilibrium self-energy functional theory. Opposed to a direct solution of the Euler equation, its time derivative is found to serve as numerically tractable and stable conditional equation to fix the time-dependent variational parameters.

Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 696, conference 1

### 2015

#### Lehmann representation of the nonequilibrium self-energy

*C. Gramsch, M. Potthoff*

It is shown that the nonequilibrium self-energy of an interacting lattice-fermion model has a unique Lehmann representation. Based on the construction of a suitable noninteracting effective medium, we provide an explicit and numerically practicable scheme to construct the Lehmann representation for the self-energy, given the Lehmann representation of the single-particle nonequilibrium Green's function. This is of particular importance for an efficient numerical solution of Dyson's equation in the context of approximations where the self-energy is obtained from a reference system with a small Hilbert space. As compared to conventional techniques to solve Dyson's equation on the Keldysh contour, the effective-medium approach allows us to reach a maximum propagation time, which can be several orders of magnitude longer. This is demonstrated explicitly by choosing the nonequilibrium cluster-perturbation theory as a simple approach to study the long-time dynamics of an inhomogeneous initial state after a quantum quench in the Hubbard model on a 10×10 square lattice. We demonstrate that the violation of conservation laws is moderate for weak Hubbard interaction and that the cluster approach is able to describe prethermalization physics.

Phys. Rev. B 92, 235135 (2015)

#### Spin dynamics and relaxation in the classical-spin Kondo-impurity model beyond the Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert equation

*M. Sayad, M. Potthoff*

The real-time dynamics of a classical spin in an external magnetic field and local exchange coupled to an extended one-dimensional system of non-interacting conduction electrons is studied numerically. Retardation effects in the coupled electron-spin dynamics are shown to be the source for the relaxation of the spin in the magnetic field. Total energy and spin is conserved in the non-adiabatic process. Approaching the new local ground state is therefore accompanied by the emission of dispersive wave packets of excitations carrying energy and spin and propagating through the lattice with Fermi velocity. While the spin dynamics in the regime of strong exchange coupling J is rather complex and governed by an emergent new time scale, the motion of the spin for weak J is regular and qualitatively well described by the Landau–Lifschitz–Gilbert (LLG) equation. Quantitatively, however, the full quantum–classical hybrid dynamics differs from the LLG approach. This is understood as a breakdown of weak-coupling perturbation theory in J in the course of time. Furthermore, it is shown that the concept of the Gilbert damping parameter is ill-defined for the case of a one-dimensional system.

New J. Phys. 17, 113058 (2015)

#### Crossover from conventional to inverse indirect magnetic exchange in the depleted Anderson lattice

*M. W. Aulbach, I. Titvinidze, M. Potthoff*

We investigate the finite-temperature properties of an Anderson lattice with regularly depleted impurities. The physics of this model is ruled by two different magnetic exchange mechanisms: conventional Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction at weak hybridization strength V and an inverse indirect magnetic exchange (IIME) at strong V, both favoring a ferromagnetic ground state. The stability of ferromagnetic order against thermal fluctuations is systematically studied by static mean-field theory for an effective low-energy spin-only model emerging perturbatively in the strong-coupling limit as well as by dynamical mean-field theory for the full model. The Curie temperature is found at a maximum for a half-filled conduction band and at intermediate hybridization strengths in the crossover regime between RKKY and IIME.

Phys. Rev. B 91, 174420

#### One-step theory of pump-probe photoemission

*J. Braun, R. Rausch, M. Potthoff, J. Minár, H. Ebert*

A theoretical framework for pump-probe photoemission is presented. The approach is based on a general formulation using the Keldysh formalism for the lesser Green's function to describe the real-time evolution of the electronic degrees of freedom in the initial state after a strong pump pulse that drives the system out of equilibrium. The final state is represented by a time-reversed low-energy electron-diffraction state. Our one-step description is related as close as possible to Pendry's original formulation of the photoemission process. The formalism allows for a quantitative calculation of time-dependent photocurrent for simple metals where a picture of effectively independent electrons is assumed to be reliable. The theory is worked out for valence- and core-electron excitations. It comprises the study of different relativistic effects as a function of the pump-probe delay.

Phys. Rev. B 91, 035119 (2015)

### 2014

#### Cooperation of different exchange mechanisms in confined magnetic systems

*A. Schwabe, M. Hänsel, M. Potthoff*

The diluted Kondo lattice model is investigated at strong antiferromagnetic local exchange couplings J, where almost-local Kondo clouds drastically restrict the motion of conduction electrons, giving rise to the possibility of quantum localization of conduction electrons for certain geometries of impurity spins. This localization may lead to the formation of local magnetic moments in the conduction-electron system, and the inverse indirect magnetic exchange (IIME) provided by virtual excitations of the Kondo singlets couples those local moments to the remaining electrons. Exemplarily, we study the one-dimensional two-impurity Kondo model with impurity spins near the chain ends, which supports the formation of conduction-electron magnetic moments at the edges of the chain for sufficiently strong J. Employing degenerate perturbation theory as well as analyzing spin gaps numerically by means of the density-matrix renormalization group, it is shown that the low-energy physics of the model can be well captured within an effective antiferromagnetic Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida-like two-spin model (“RKKY from IIME”) or within an effective central-spin model, depending on edge-spin distance and system size.

Phys. Rev. A 90, 033615 (2014)

### 2013

#### Nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory

*F. Hofmann, M. Eckstein, E. Arrigoni, M. Potthoff*

The self-energy functional theory (SFT) is generalized to describe the real-time dynamics of correlated lattice-fermion models far from thermal equilibrium. This is achieved by starting from a reformulation of the original equilibrium theory in terms of double-time Green's functions on the Keldysh-Matsubara contour. With the help of a generalized Luttinger-Ward functional, we construct a functional Ω̂[Σ] which is stationary at the physical (nonequilibrium) self-energy Σ and which yields the grand potential of the initial thermal state Ω at the physical point. Nonperturbative approximations can be defined by specifying a reference system that serves to generate trial self-energies. These self-energies are varied by varying the reference system's one-particle parameters on the Keldysh-Matsubara contour. In the case of thermal equilibrium, this approach reduces to the conventional SFT. Contrary to the equilibrium theory, however, “unphysical” variations, i.e., variations that are different on the upper and the lower branches of the Keldysh contour, must be considered to fix the time dependence of the optimal physical parameters via the variational principle. Functional derivatives in the nonequilibrium SFT Euler equation are carried out analytically to derive conditional equations for the variational parameters that are accessible to a numerical evaluation via a time-propagation scheme. Approximations constructed by means of the nonequilibrium SFT are shown to be inherently causal, internally consistent, and to respect macroscopic conservation laws resulting from gauge symmetries of the Hamiltonian. This comprises the nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory but also dynamical-impurity and variational-cluster approximations that are specified by reference systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom. In this way, nonperturbative and consistent approximations can be set up, the numerical evaluation of which is accessible to an exact-diagonalization approach.

Phys. Rev. B 88, 165124 (2013)

#### Dynamical symmetry between spin and charge excitations studied by a plaquette mean-field approach in two dimensions

*P. Jurgenowski, M. Potthoff*

The real-time dynamics of local occupation numbers in a Hubbard model on a 6×6 square lattice is studied by means of the nonequilibrium generalization of the cluster-perturbation theory. The cluster approach is adapted to studies of two-dimensional lattice systems by using concepts of multiple-scattering theory and a component decomposition of the nonequilibrium Green's function on the Keldysh-Matsubara contour. We consider “classical” initial states formed as tensor products of states on 2×2 plaquettes and trace the effects of the interplaquette hopping in the final-state dynamics. Two different initially excited states are considered on an individual plaquette, a fully polarized staggered spin state (Néel) and a fully polarized charge-density wave (CDW). The final-state dynamics is constrained by a dynamical symmetry; i.e., the time-evolution operator and certain observables are invariant under an antiunitary transformation composed of time reversal, an asymmetric particle-hole, and a staggered sign transformation. We find an interesting interrelation between this dynamical symmetry and the separation of energy and time scales: In the case of a global excitation with all plaquettes excited, the initial Néel and the initial CDW states are linked by the transformation. This prevents an efficient relaxation of the CDW state on the short time scale governing the dynamics of charge degrees of freedom. Contrarily, the CDW state is found to relax much faster than the Néel state in the case of a local excitation on a single plaquette where the symmetry relation between the two states is broken by the coupling to the environment.

Phys. Rev. B 87, 205118 (2013)

#### Inverse indirect magnetic exchange

*A. Schwabe, I. Titvinidze, M. Potthoff*

Magnetic moments strongly coupled to the spins of conduction electrons in a nanostructure can confine the conduction-electron motion due to scattering at almost localized Kondo singlets. We study the resulting local-moment formation in the conduction-electron system and the magnetic exchange coupling mediated by the Kondo singlets. Its distance dependence is oscillatory and induces robust ferro- or antiferromagnetic order in multi-impurity systems.

Phys. Rev. B 88, 121107(R) (2013)

### 2012

#### Doublon dynamics in the extended Fermi-Hubbard model

*F. Hofmann, M. Potthoff*

Phys. Rev. B 85, 205127 (2012)

#### Krylov-space approach to the equilibrium and nonequilibrium single-particle Green's function

*M. Balzer, N. Gdaniec, M.Potthoff*

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24 035603

### 2011

#### Nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory

*M. Balzer, M. Potthoff*

Phys. Rev. B 83, 195132 (2011)