Suppression of the vacuum space-charge effect in fs-photoemission by a retarding electrostatic front lens
G. Schönhense et. al.
The performance of time-resolved photoemission experiments at fs-pulsed photon sources is ultimately limited by the e–e Coulomb interaction, downgrading energy and momentum resolution. Here, we present an approach to effectively suppress space-charge artifacts in momentum microscopes and photoemission microscopes. A retarding electrostatic field generated by a special objective lens repels slow electrons, retaining the k-image of the fast photoelectrons. The suppression of space-charge effects scales with the ratio of the photoelectron velocities of fast and slow electrons. Fields in the range from −20 to −1100 V/mm for Ekin = 100 eV to 4 keV direct secondaries and pump-induced slow electrons back to the sample surface. Ray tracing simulations reveal that this happens within the first 40 to 3 μm above the sample surface for Ekin = 100 eV to 4 keV. An optimized front-lens design allows switching between the conventional accelerating and the new retarding mode. Time-resolved experiments at Ekin = 107 eV using fs extreme ultraviolet probe pulses from the free-electron laser FLASH reveal that the width of the Fermi edge increases by just 30 meV at an incident pump fluence of 22 mJ/cm2 (retarding field −21 V/mm). For an accelerating field of +2 kV/mm and a pump fluence of only 5 mJ/cm2, it increases by 0.5 eV (pump wavelength 1030 nm). At the given conditions, the suppression mode permits increasing the slow-electron yield by three to four orders of magnitude. The feasibility of the method at high energies is demonstrated without a pump beam at Ekin = 3830 eV using hard x rays from the storage ring PETRA III. The approach opens up a previously inaccessible regime of pump fluences for photoemission experiments.
Review of Scientific Instruments 92, 053703 (2021)
Magnetic order and surface state gap in (Sb0.95Cr0.05)2 Te3
T. K. Dalui, P. K. Ghose, S. Majumdar, S. K. Mahatha, F. Diekmann, K. Rossnagel, R. Tomar, S. Chakraverty, A. Berlie, and S. Giri
Magnetic transition element doping in topological insulators, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry, gives rise to the diverse range of exotic consequences, though proper understanding of the magnetic order has rarely been attempted by using any microscopic experiments. We report the occurrence of the magnetic order in (Sb0.95Cr0.05)2Te3 using the muon spin relaxation studies. The asymmetry curve at low temperature (T) shows an evidence of a damped oscillation, providing a clue about the internal magnetic field (Hint), which follows Hint(T)=Hint(0)[1−T/TC]β with ordering temperature TC≈6.1 K and critical exponent β≈0.22. The critical exponent is close to the two-dimensional XY-type interaction. The magnetization curves at low T exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior at low field (H) and the de Haas–van Alphen (dHvA) effect at high H. The analysis of the dHvA oscillation proposes the charge carrier that acts like a massive Dirac fermion. The Berry phase, as obtained from the Landau-level fan diagram, suggests a surface state gap at the Dirac point. The complex electronic structure is discussed by correlating the magnetic order attributed to the Cr doping in Sb2Te3.
An open-source, end-to-end workflow for multidimensional photoemission spectroscopy
R. Patrick Xian , Yves acremann, Steinn Y. agustsson, Maciej Dendzik, Kevin Bühlmann, Davide Curcio, Dmytro Kutnyakhov, Federico Pressacco, Michael Heber, Shuo Dong, Tommaso Pincelli, Jure Demsar, Wilfried Wurth, Philip Hofmann, Martin Wolf, Markus Scheidgen, Laurenz Rettig & Ralph Ernstorfer
Characterization of the electronic band structure of solid state materials is routinely performed using photoemission spectroscopy. Recent advancements in short-wavelength light sources and electron detectors give rise to multidimensional photoemission spectroscopy, allowing parallel measurements of the electron spectral function simultaneously in energy, two momentum components and additional physical parameters with single-event detection capability. Efficient processing of the photoelectron event streams at a rate of up to tens of megabytes per second will enable rapid band mapping for materials characterization. We describe an open-source workflow that allows user interaction with billion-count single-electron events in photoemission band mapping experiments, compatible with beamlines at 3rd and 4rd generation light sources and table-top laser-based setups. The workflow offers an end-to-end recipe from distributed operations on single-event data to structured formats for downstream scientific tasks and storage to materials science database integration. Both the workflow and processed data can be archived for reuse, providing the infrastructure for documenting the provenance and lineage of photoemission data for future high-throughput experiments.
Observation of an Excitonic Mott Transition Through Ultrafast Core-cum-Conduction Photoemission Spectroscopy
Maciej Dendzik, R. Patrick Xian, Enrico Perfetto, Davide Sangalli, Dmytro Kutnyakhov, Shuo Dong, Samuel Beaulieu, Tommaso Pincelli, Federico Pressacco, Davide Curcio, Steinn Ymir Agustsson, Michael Heber, Jasper Hauer, Wilfried Wurth, Günter Brenner, Yves Acremann, Philip Hofmann, Martin Wolf, Andrea Marini, Gianluca Stefanucci, Laurenz Rettig, and Ralph Ernstorfer
Time-resolved soft-x-ray photoemission spectroscopy is used to simultaneously measure the ultrafast dynamics of core-level spectral functions and excited states upon excitation of excitons in WSe2. We present a many-body approximation for the Green’s function, which excellently describes the transient core-hole spectral function. The relative dynamics of excited-state signal and core levels clearly show a delayed core-hole renormalization due to screening by excited quasifree carriers resulting from an excitonic Mott transition. These findings establish time-resolved core-level photoelectron spectroscopy as a sensitive probe of subtle electronic many-body interactions and ultrafast electronic phase transitions.
Time- and momentum-resolved photoemission studies using time-of-flight momentum microscopy at a free-electron laser
D. Kutnyakhov, R. P. Xian, M. Dendzik, M. Heber, F. Pressacco, S. Y. Agustsson, L. Wenthaus, H. Meyer, S. Gieschen, G. Mercurio, A. Benz, K. Bühlman, S. Däster, R. Gort, D. Curcio, K. Volckaert, M. Bianchi, Ch. Sanders, J. A. Miwa, S. Ulstrup, A. Oelsner, C. Tusche, Y.-J. Chen, D. Vasilyev, K. Medjanik, G. Brenner, S. Dziarzhytski, H. Redlin, B. Manschwetus, S. Dong, J. Hauer, L. Rettig, F. Diekmann, K. Rossnagel, J. Demsar, H.-J. Elmers, Ph. Hofmann, R. Ernstorfer, G. Schönhense, Y. Acremann, and W. Wurth
Time-resolved photoemission with ultrafast pump and probe pulses is an emerging technique with wide application potential. Real-time recording of nonequilibrium electronic processes, transient states in chemical reactions, or the interplay of electronic and structural dynamics offers fascinating opportunities for future research. Combining valence-band and core-level spectroscopy with photoelectron diffraction for electronic, chemical, and structural analyses requires few 10 fs soft X-ray pulses with some 10 meV spectral resolution, which are currently available at high repetition rate free-electron lasers. We have constructed and optimized a versatile setup commissioned at FLASH/PG2 that combines free-electron laser capabilities together with a multidimensional recording scheme for photoemission studies. We use a full-field imaging momentum microscope with time-of-flight energy recording as the detector for mapping of 3D band structures in (kx, ky, E) parameter space with unprecedented efficiency. Our instrument can image full surface Brillouin zones with up to 7 Å−1 diameter in a binding-energy range of several eV, resolving about 2.5 × 105 data voxels simultaneously. Using the ultrafast excited state dynamics in the van der Waals semiconductor WSe2 measured at photon energies of 36.5 eV and 109.5 eV, we demonstrate an experimental energy resolution of 130 meV, a momentum resolution of 0.06 Å−1, and a system response function of 150 fs.
Ultrafast charge redistribution in small iodine containing molecules
M. Hollstein, K. Mertens, S. Klumpp, N. Gerken, S. Palutke, I. Baev, G. Brenner, S. Dziarzhytski, M. Meyer, W. Wurth, D. Pfannkuche1, M. Martins
We present studies on intra-molecular charge redistribution in iodine containing molecules upon iodine-4d photoionization. For this, we employed an XUV-pump-XUV-probe scheme based on time-delayed femtosecond pulses delivered by the free-electron laser at DESY in Hamburg (FLASH). The experimental results show delay dependent and molecule-specific iodine charge state distributions that arise upon multiple iodine-4d photoionization. Using the example of CH3I and CH2I2, we compare the delay-dependent yields of I3+. We model the involved processes using advanced ab initio electronic structure calculations which include electron correlations combined with a classical model of the nuclear motion. The qualitative agreement of our model with the experimental results allows us to relate the observed, strongly molecule-specific efficiencies of the intra-molecular charge rearrangement not only to molecule-specific fragmentation timescales but also to molecule-specific electronic structure and molecular environment.
Direct observation of spin-orbit-induced 3d hybridization via resonant inelastic extreme ultraviolet scattering on an edge-sharing cuprate
M. Malvestuto, A. Caretta, B. Casarin, R. Ciprian, M. Dell'Angela, S. Laterza, Y. Chuang, W. Wurth, A. Revcolevschi, L. A. Wray, and F. Parmigiani
Using high resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measurements, we have observed that the orbital excitations of the quasi-1D spin chain compound CuGeO3 has nontrivial and noticeable orbital mixing effects from 3d valence spin-orbit coupling. In particular, the SOC leads to a significant correction of dz2 state, which has a direct interplay with the low energy physics of cuprates. Guided by atomic multiplet based modeling, our results strongly support a 3d spin-orbit mixing scenario and explore in detail the nature of these excitations.
4D texture of circular dichroism in soft-x-ray photoemission from tungsten
O. Fedchenko, K. Medjanik, S. Chernov, D. Kutnyakhov, M. Ellguth, A. Oelsner, B. Schönhense, T.R.F. Peixoto, P. Lutz, C.-H. Min , F. Reinert, S. Däster, Y. Acremann, J. Viefhaus, W. Wurth, J. Braun, J. Minár, H.Ebert, H.J. Elmers, and G. Schönhense
Photoemission-intensity distributions I RCP/LCP (E B , k ) measured for right- and left-circularly polarized soft x-rays revealed a large circular dichroism in angular distribution (CDAD) in the 4D parameter space (E B binding energy, k momentum vector). Full-field k-imaging combined with time-of-flight energy recording at a high-brilliance soft x-ray beamline allowed mapping the CDAD in the bulk Brillouin zone of tungsten and the entire d-band complex within a few hours. CDAD-asymmetries are very high (up to 90%), persist throughout the whole photon-energy range (300–1300 eV) and show a pronounced dependence on momentum k and binding energy E B, visualized as movies or sequences of cuts through the 4D object. One-step photoemission calculations for the same photon energies show fair agreement with the measured results. In addition to the requirement of a 'handed' experimental geometry, known from previous experiments on adsorbates and surface states, we find an anti-symmetric behavior of the CDAD with respect to two bulk mirror planes. A new symmetry condition along the perpendicular momentum kz makes CDAD a valuable tool for an unambiguous identification of high-symmetry planes in direct transitions in the periodic zone scheme. Technically, the method provides a circular polarimeter for soft, tender and hard x-rays.
Transiently enhanced interlayer tunneling in optically driven high Tc superconductors
J. Okamoto, W. Hu, A. Cavalleri, L. Mathey
Recent pump-probe experiments reported an enhancement of superconducting transport along the c axis of underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+δ (YBCO), induced by a midinfrared optical pump pulse tuned to a specific lattice vibration. To understand this transient nonequilibrium state, we develop a pump-probe formalism for a stack of Josephson junctions, and we consider the tunneling strengths in the presence of modulation with an ultrashort optical pulse. We demonstrate that a transient enhancement of the Josephson coupling can be obtained for pulsed excitation and that this can be even larger than in a continuously driven steady state. Especially interesting is the conclusion that the effect is largest when the material is parametrically driven at a frequency immediately above the plasma frequency, in agreement with what is found experimentally. For bilayer Josephson junctions, an enhancement similar to that experimentally is predicted below the critical temperature Tc. This model reproduces the essential features of the enhancement measured below Tc. To reproduce the experimental results above Tc, we will explore extensions of this model, such as in-plane and amplitude fluctuations, elsewhere.
High-resolution resonant inelastic extreme ultraviolet scattering from orbital and spin excitations in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet
A. Caretta, M. Dell'Angela, Y. Chuang, A. M. Kalashnikova, R. V. Pisarev, D. Bossini, F. Hieke, W. Wurth, B. Casarin, R. Ciprian, F. Parmigiani, S. Wexler, L. A. Wray, M. Malvestuto
We report a high-resolution resonant inelastic extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scattering study of the quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet KCoF3. By tuning the EUV photon energy to the cobalt M23 edge, a complete set of low-energy 3d spin-orbital excitations is revealed. These low-lying electronic excitations are modeled using an extended multiplet-based mean-field calculation to identify the roles of lattice and magnetic degrees of freedom in modifying the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectral line shape. We have demonstrated that the temperature dependence of RIXS features upon the antiferromagnetic ordering transition enables us to probe the energetics of short-range spin correlations in this material.
Extreme ultraviolet resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at a seeded free-electron laser
M. Dell’Angela, F. Hieke, M. Malvestuto, L. Sturari, S. Bajt, I. V. Kozhevnikov, J. Ratanapreechachai, A. Caretta, B. Casarin, F. Glerean, A. M. Kalashnikova, R. V. Pisarev, Y.-D. Chuang, G. Manzoni, F. Cilento, R. Mincigrucci, A. Simoncig, E. Principi, C. Masciovecchio, L. Raimondi, N. Mahne, C. Svetina, M. Zangrando, R. Passuello, G. Gaio, M. Prica, M. Scarcia, G. Kourousias, R. Borghes, L. Giannessi, W. Wurth and F. Parmigiani
In the past few years, we have been witnessing an increased interest for studying materials properties under non-equilibrium conditions. Several well established spectroscopies for experiments in the energy domain have been successfully adapted to the time domain with sub-picosecond time resolution. Here we show the realization of high resolution resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) with a stable ultrashort X-ray source such as an externally seeded free electron laser (FEL). We have designed and constructed a RIXS experimental endstation that allowed us to successfully measure the d-d excitations in KCoF3 single crystals at the cobalt M2,3-edge at FERMI FEL (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy). The FEL-RIXS spectra show an excellent agreement with the ones obtained from the same samples at the MERIXS endstation of the MERLIN beamline at the Advanced Light Source storage ring (Berkeley, USA). We established experimental protocols for performing time resolved RIXS experiments at a FEL source to avoid X ray-induced sample damage, while retaining comparable acquisition time to the synchrotron based measurements. Finally, we measured and modelled the influence of the FEL mixed electromagnetic modes, also present in externally seeded FELs, and the beam transport with ~120 meV experimental resolution achieved in the presented RIXS setup.
The role of space charge in spin-resolved photoemission experiments
A. Fognini, G. Salvatella, T.U. Michlmayr, C. Wetli, U. Ramsperger, T. Bähler, F. Sorgenfrei, M. Beye, A. Eschenlohr, N. Pontius, C. Stamm, F. Hieke, M. Dell‘Angela, S. de Jong, R. Kukreja, N. Gerasimova, V. Rybnikov, H. Redlin, J. Raabe, W. Wurth et.
Spin-resolved photoemission is one of the most direct ways of measuring the magnetization of a ferromagnet. If all valence band electrons contribute, the measured average spin polarization is proportional to the magnetization. This is even the case if electronic excitations are present, and thus is of particular interest for studying the response of the magnetization to a pump laser pulse. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of ultrafast spin-resolved photoemission using free electron laser (FEL) radiation and investigate the effect of space charge on the detected spin polarization. The sample is exposed to the radiation of the FEL FLASH in Hamburg. Surprisingly, the measured spin polarization depends on the fluence of the FEL radiation: a higher FEL fluence reduces the measured spin polarization. Space-charge simulations can explain this effect. These findings have consequences for future spin-polarized photoemission experiments using pulsed photon sources.
New Journal of Physics 16, 043031 (2014)
Ultrafast reduction of the total magnetization in iron
A. Fognini, T. U. Michlmayr, G. Salvatella, C. Wetli, U. Ramsperger, T. Bähler, F.Sorgenfrei, M. Beye, A. Eschenlohr, N. Pontius, C. Stamm, F. Hieke, M. Dell'Angela, S. de Jong, R. Kukreja, N. Gerasimova, V. Rybnikov, H. Redlin, W. Wurth, et. al
Surprisingly, if a ferromagnet is exposed to an ultrafast laser pulse, its apparent magnetization is reduced within less than a picosecond. Up to now, the total magnetization, i.e., the average spin polarization of the whole valence band, was not detectable on a sub-picosecond time scale. Here, we present experimental data, confirming the ultrafast reduction of the total magnetization. Soft x-ray pulses from the free electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) extract polarized cascade photoelectrons from an iron layer excited by a femtosecond laser pulse. The spin polarization of the emitted electrons is detected by a Mott spin polarimeter.
Applied Physics Letters 104, 032402 (2014)
Speed limit of the insulator metal-transition in magnetite
S. de Jong, R. Kukreja, C. Trabant, N. Pontius, C.F. Chang, T. Kachel, M. Beye, F. Sorgenfrei, C. H. Back, B. Bräuer, W.F. Schlotter, J.J. Turner, O. Krupin, M. Doehler, D. Zhu, M.A. Hossain, W. Wurth, D. Fausti, F. Novelli, M. Esposito, et. al
As the oldest known magnetic material, magnetite (Fe3O4) has fascinated mankind for millennia. As the first oxide in which a relationship between electrical conductivity and fluctuating/localized electronic order was shown, magnetite represents a model system for understanding correlated oxides in general. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism of the insulator–metal, or Verwey, transition has long remained inaccessible. Recently, three-Fe-site lattice distortions called trimerons were identified as the characteristic building blocks of the low-temperature insulating electronically ordered phase9. Here we investigate the Verwey transition with pump–probe X-ray diffraction and optical reflectivity techniques, and show how trimerons become mobile across the insulator–metal transition. We find this to be a two-step process. After an initial 300 fs destruction of individual trimerons, phase separation occurs on a 1.5±0.2 ps timescale to yield residual insulating and metallic regions. This work establishes the speed limit for switching in future oxide electronics.
Nature Materials 12, 882 (2013)